HA-SHAḤAR (Heb. הַשַּׁחַר), Hebrew journal which was published and edited in Vienna by peretz smolenskin from 1868 to 1884. During these 16 years, 12 volumes of Ha-Shaḥar were published. In theory Ha-Shaḥar was a monthly; in practice, however, the financial and organizational difficulties caused prolonged interruptions in its regular appearances. In his first article "Petaḥ Davar" ("Preface") Smolenskin describes its aims: the diffusion of haskalah ; war against its Orthodox opponents, especially the Ḥasidim: war against assimilationists and religious reformers; and defense of the national values of the nation and the Hebrew language. Smolenskin molded the image of Ha-Shaḥar as an independent and militant journal. Ha-Shaḥar was initially designed mainly for Russian Jews. Because of Russian restrictions against the Hebrew press, however, it was published in Vienna, from where copies were sent to the offices of the censor in Russia before distribution through agents in Russia. Sometimes, an article which the censor was liable to reject was published in a special supplement, and sent to the subscribers in Russia in sealed envelopes separately from the regular copy. Outside Russia as well, Ha-Shaḥar acquired a large audience of readers, especially in Austria, Galicia, and Romania. The number of subscribers to the annual fluctuated between 800 to 1,300. Subscriptions covered only a part of the expenses even though the publisher did not pay fees to his writers and carried out himself a large part of the proofreading and the distribution of the copies to the subscribers. Smolenskin invested his own money in Ha-Shaḥar and was supported by contributors from among the well-to-do maskilim, and subsidies from the Alliance Israélite Universelle in Paris and the Ḥevrat Mefiẓei ha-Haskalah ("Society for the Dissemination of the Haskalah") in St. Petersburg. Ha-Shaḥar published belles lettres and articles dealing with Jewish scholarly matters and current affairs. Among the Hebrew writers of the generation who contributed were M.D. Brandstadter , R.A. Broides, the poets J.L. Gordon , A.B. Gottlober , J.L. Levin (Yehalel) , I. Kaminer , S. Mandelkern , and M.M. Dolitzki . There, too, Smolenskin published his novels (Ha-To'eh be-Darkhei ha-Ḥayyim, Simḥat Ḥanef, Kevurat Ḥamor, Ha-Yerushah, Nekam Berit). The works are written mainly in the flowery maskil style. Most condemn the rabbinical orthodoxy of the time and especially the Ḥasidim,   but at the same time assail the assimilationist maskilim. Socialistic undertones are heard especially in Yehalel's poetry ("Kishron ha-Ma'aseh," and others). In the area of Judaic studies Ha-Shaḥar published works of scholars from Western and Eastern Europe, including solomon rubin , david kahana , Y. Reifman , S. Buber I.H. Weiss , S. Sachs , Meir Ish-Shalom (Friedmann) , A. Jellinek , J.H. Gurland , A.E. Harkavy , Ḥ.Z. Lerner , A. Krochmal , E. Shulman, and D. Holub. Ha-Shaḥar also published letters of Jewish scholars and authors of the early Haskalah: S.J. Rapoport , S. Luzzatto , and J. Perl . Most of the book reviews were written by Smolenskin. Of prime historical importance were the articles which dealt with current problems. Smolenskin himself published his major articles on Jewish problems in which he introduced his nationalist ideology. These views, and especially his attack on mendelssohn , the cultural hero of the Haskalah, alienated many of his supporters, and by the end of 1880 Smolenskin was forced to discontinue publication. With the rise of the Ḥibbat Zion movement in the wake of the pogroms of 1881, Smolenskin renewed the publication of Ha-Shaḥar which now openly advocated the Ḥibbat Zion program for Jewish settlement in Ereẓ Israel. Smolenskin filled Ha-Shaḥar with dozens of articles on the new movement. He attacked the Alliance Israélite Universelle, which had once supported him, for their opposition to Jewish settlement in Ereẓ Israel. E. Ben-Yehuda , M.L. Lilienblum , A.S. Friedberg , A.A. Sirotkin, and others now wrote in Ha-Shaḥar. In spite of his weakening state of health, Smolenskin continued to publish Ha-Shaḥar until his death, after which his brother, Y.L. Smolenskin, published the last four copies, completing the 12th volume. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Klausner, Sifrut, 5 (19552), index; A. Sha'anan, Ha-Sifrut ha-Ivrit ha-Ḥadashah li-Zerameha, 2 (1962), 44–47; A. Kristianpoller, Die hebraeische Publizistik in Wien, abt. 3 (1930). (Yehuda Slutsky)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать реферат

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Shahar Pe'er — Shahar Peer Pour les articles homonymes, voir Peer. Shahar Peer …   Wikipédia en Français

  • SHAḤAR, DAVID — (1926–1997), Hebrew writer. Shaḥar was born in Jerusalem, being the fifth generation of a Jerusalemite family. He studied at the Hebrew University and published his first book, a collection of stories Al Ha Ḥalomot ( Concerning Dreams ),… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Shahar Pe'er — Shahar Peer Nationalität:  Israel Geburtstag: 1. Mai 1987 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Shahar Peer — Nationalität: Israel …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Shahar Peer — Estadísticas de Shahar Peer Origen: Macabim,  Israel Fecha de Nacimiento …   Wikipedia Español

  • Shahar Vikas Aghadi — (City Development Front), a name that has been used by several local political parties and groupings in the Indian state of Maharashtra. Groups include Shahar Vikas Aghadi in Mira Bhayendar (existed in 2003), Shahar Vikas Aghadi in Jalgaon… …   Wikipedia

  • Shahar Palace — (Джайпур,Индия) Категория отеля: Адрес: barwara house colony,civil lines , Ajmer road …   Каталог отелей

  • SHAHAR, SHULAMIT — (1928– ), historian specializing in the Middle Ages. Shahar s work is considered groundbreaking. Her studies on women, children, and the aged – social groups that had not been studied before in the medieval period – became milestones in the study …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Shahar Perkiss — Carrière professionnelle 1981 – 1990 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Shahar Zubari — ( he. שחר צוברי, Shahar Tzuberi ; born September 1, 1986) is an Israeli windsurfer and Olympic bronze medalist, surfing in the Neil Pryde discipline. He was born in Eilat, Israel.Early careerZubari, an Eilat native, began surfing at the young age …   Wikipedia

  • Shahar (god) — Shahar is the god of dawn in the pantheon of Ugarit. He is the twin brother and counterpart of Shalim, the god of dusk. Shachar (שחר) is the Hebrew word for dawn , see [http://cf.blueletterbible.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?Strongs=H07837 Strong… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”